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Pearls
are made of many layers of nacre, a combination of the mineral calcium carbonate and the protein conchiolin, which form in the shells of bi-valve mollusks found in salt and fresh water. These mollusks are found around the world from the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia to the Gulfs of Mexico, Panama and Venezuela.

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Black-Lipped Pearl Oyster ‘ Pinctada Margaritifera’
Harvested since millennia, the black-lipped oyster, covering the widest geographical area of any known species, was the preferred color of Pearl of Indian and Persian monarchs. However, despite this oyster's name the nacre is rarely pure black, instead the colors range from gray to green with blue or rose overtones. Pearls produced by Pacific black-lipped oysters are the most sought after in today’s gem and jewelry industry.

Silver-Lipped Pearl Oyster ‘ Pinctada Maxima’

Sometimes referred to as the gold-lipped oyster, these giants have been harvested for their Pearl and Mother Of Pearl for more than a hundred years in the South Pacific. They were first cultured for Pearls in the late 1800s but only became widely available in the late 19th Century. Today, the silver or white nacre produced by this oyster is the mainstay of the Australian, Japanese and Philippine cultured Pearl industries.

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Ayoka Pearl Oyster ‘ Pinctada Fucata’

Japan is famous for its Ayoka Pearl producing oysters, but this has only been the case since the 1920s. Before this time Japanese divers placed little value on Pearls, discarding them and keeping the Mother Of Pearl, which was used as decorative inlay in jewelry and household ornamentation. By the 1950s, with new culturing techniques, Akoya Pearl had won widespread popularity and is now exported worldwide.

Ceylon Pearl Oyster ‘ Pinctada Radiata’

From the time of antiquity up to the 1920s the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf supplied the world's demand for Pearl and Mother Of Pearl. The majority of these Pearls came from the Ceylon oyster, known as ‘Bil-bil’ by the fishermen of the Red Sea. The large demand almost drove this particular species to extinction but remarkably this oyster has endured the ravages of time and new techniques in cultivation have seen numbers increase.

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Atlantic Pearl Oyster ‘ Pinctada Imbricata’
Before leaving Spain Christopher Columbus was told by the Queen that beside gold and silver, Pearl was the treasure that the Spanish monarchy desired the most. When Columbus landed on the Venezuelan coast in 1498, the royal request was answered on the islands of Margarita and Cubagua. For one hundred years, the fruits of millions of Atlantic oysters from the region were shipped to Europe to satisfy the European monarchy’s desire for Pearl jewelry.
 
La Paz Pearl Oyster ‘ Pinctada Mazatlanica’
Before the discovery of the Pacific’s black-lipped oyster, the only other Pearl that came close to the beautiful colors of the oysters of Polynesia came from the La Paz oysters in the waters of Panama and California. At one time La Paz oysters, preferring open oceanic conditions, were near extinction but recent culturing ventures in the Gulf of California are replenishing numbers and seeing a return of La Paz black Pearl to the world market.
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Abalone Pearl Oysters ‘Haliotis’

Used in trade for thousands of years Abalone oysters are found in abundance around the world. As well as being produced for their meat, they are an excellent source of highly iridescent Pearl and Mother Of Pearl, ranging in beautiful colors from turquoise, green, cream and rose.


• Green Abalone ‘ Haliotis Fulgens’

Green Abalone thrives in the cold and rocky waters in the Gulf of California. They are often encrusted with small clams that adhere to their surface whose presence gives rise to the creation of blister Pearls within the Abalone. Blister Pearls are formed when the clams bore into the shell from the outside, the Abalone responds in defense to the intrusion by secreting layers of nacre, which coat the foreign body on the inside of the shell eventually solidifying forming natural blister Pearls.

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Mabe Pearl Oyster ‘ Pteria Penguin’ and ‘Pteria Sterna’
These two species of thin-shelled oysters are the most common sources of Mabe blister Pearls. Mabe Pearls are artificially induced or cultured, they form when a mold is inserted between the oyster's shell, this causes the oyster to produce layers of nacre which eventually cover the mold, the mould is then cut from the shell. These oysters occur naturally in the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and the western Pacific.

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