"And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment.
And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: The first
row shall be a (1) sardius, a (2*)
topaz, and a (3) carbuncle: this shall be the first row.
And the second row shall be an (4) emerald, a
(5) sapphire and a (6) diamond.
And the third row a (7) ligure, an (8)
agate, and an (9)
And the fourth row a (10) beryl, and an
(11) onyx, and (12) jasper: they shall
be set in gold in their inclosings."
The chart above details each of the 12
gemstones changing identity through more than 3000 years: from the time
of the Hebrew exodus in 1444B.C., passing by the Septuagint translation of 300 B.C.,
to the time of the King James translation in 1611 A.D.
In 300 B.C. the Septuagint had translated
gem number 9: 'Ahlamah' as 'Amethystos' Then, in the 1611 'King James Version,'
'Amethystos' was translated as 'Amethyst'.
It is important to state that the etymological theories on these
pages are speculative, and should not be taken as gospel.